The Patterson page of this website is dedicated in memory of Virginia Day, who researched the Patterson family genealogy tirelessly throughout her life, before the days of the internet, when information was gathered from the recollections of family members. Virginia's enthusiasm for researching the family history was passed on to Christine Spencer, who used Virginia's letters as a starting point for her own research.
The Patterson genealogy was developed jointly by myself and Christine Meinert Spencer of Illinois. We are both descendants of George Patterson and Ann Marigold Patterson. Christine is a descendant of their son Charles Patterson and his wife, Janet Lochead. I am a descendant of their son James Patterson and his wife, Breseya Jane Pounder.
The Lanark County GenWeb hosts a Pioneer Families page by Keith Thompson. Included on this page is the Patterson family and the descendants of George Patterson and Ann Marigold Patterson. For a concise listing of the children, the grandchildren, and the great grandchildren of George and Ann, visit http://www.rootsweb.com/~onlanark/families/patterson_family_of_lanark_county.htm
Linda S. Jordan
From the Renfrew Mercury of May 6, 1894
"According to the story that has come down from the sixteenth century, the Pattersons all spelled the name with one 't' before Queen Elizabeth set about marking those of her subjects who left the ancient Catholic faith and cast their lot with the Church of England. She insisted that all the Protestant Pattersons take to themselves a second 't' and since that time many have followed that mode of spelling the name. London Standard."
George Patterson belonged to a sept of the Lennox Clan. He was born May 15, 1782 and was baptized September 19, 1782 in Perth, Perthshire, Scotland, the son of James Patterson and Janet Robertson Patterson. This information was obtained from the Old Parochial Register (OPR) for Perth, Ref 387/7, Frame 2025.
MILITARY HISTORY OF GEORGE PATTERSON IN THE PERTHSHIRE MILITIA 1798 - 1809
Researched by Forces War Records and a Descendant, Christine Meinert Spencer, and with passages from the Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
George Patterson joined the Perthshire Militia unit in 1798 at the age of 16 as a resident of Perthshire. Military Historian Roger Nixon, found information on George Patterson from Kew, specifically that George Patterson joined the Perthshire Militia in 1798 and left in 1809, having served at various places in the British Isles. No other information has been found personally on George Patterson during those years.
In 1797, the Scottish Militia Act was passed. At that time, Britain was at war with France, Holland and Spain. Their only ally, Austria, had been defeated and forced to sign a peace agreement. The fear of invasion by the French "was considerable and as so large a population of the regular forces were employed outside of Great Britain, the difficulties of recruiting grew yearly more urgent. The system of impressment was rightly intensely unpopular, and the bounty system was a practical and expensive failure. The government, therefore, determined to raise a militia force by means of the ballot; an act to this effect was consequently passed in 1794 for England and three years later extended to Scotland." From A Short History of the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) 1725-1907 by Arthur Grenfell Wauchope.
"By the Military Act of 1797, in every parish of Scotland, a return was made of all men between the ages of 19-23. After omitting exemptions of professors, clergymen, school masters, constables, indentured servants, apprentices, seamen and men with more than two legitimate children, a ballot for the required quota was taken. When a sufficient number of men volunteered, no ballot was necessary. The men enlisted to serve within Scotland during the war and for one calendar month after the proclamation of peace. Owing to the blundering fashion in which the measure was placed before the people, rioting took place in several districts and it became necessary to pass a second act extending the date for the initiation of the organization from 1st August to 1st March, 1798." From the book "The Military History of Perthshire" by Marchioness of Tullibardine, R. A. & J. Hay, Glasgow/Edinburgh, 1908
The formation of the militia in Scotland was deeply unpopular, as there was hostility and suspicion of anything undertaken by the government. This hostility to military service had been intensified by the system of Fencibles, which preceded the militia, and were groups of men enlisted to serve only in Scotland, but were forced to go to England. In the Highlands, it was believed that the balloted men were to be transported to the West Indies, and that the act as a whole, was a scheme to depopulate the country. For a soldier to get orders to the West Indies in those days was regarded as almost a death promise. The scourge of fevers there was well known to the population of the British Isles.
Through education in the newspapers, great stress was laid upon explaining the Act to the people and showing the benefits, along with warnings of the consequences of resistance. In Perthshire, things calmed down, and the tenants turned out to protect the Duke of Atholl and the ringleaders were arrested. The county quotas were fixed by Council in March of 1798. To attract recruits, they stressed the limitation of service, the right of disabled men to claim a pension, and the comforts of a soldier's life. A private's pay was a shilling a day, which was superior to that of tradesman and labourers. They also had gentlemen of their own county as officers. They could be sure of being looked after, both in service and after they returned to civil life. The Royal Perthshire Militia was one of only two militia units which came from single counties.
"In May, 1798, the militia was called out on the 25th of June, some 320 officers and men assembled at Perth under Alexander Graham Sterling, of Duchray, who had been appointed lieutenant colonel. The unit was declared to be 'more forward' than any of the other Scottish units." Military History of Perthshire, Marchioness of Tullibardine, R.A. and J. Hay, Glasgow/Edinburgh, 1908
George came into the army at a good time in regards to living conditions. After 1793, more barracks were constructed for accommodations and his Perthshire Militia unit was one of the first to occupy the barracks built at Haddington. However, the barracks were often thrown up hastily, badly built, cramped, and situated in bad places. In the barracks at Fort George, for example, rooms contained four double beds, a table, two benches and a fireplace for cooking as well as warmth. There was usually sufficient leeway for allocation of rooms to families, although it could have meant two or more families to a room. (The British Redcoat, 1793-1815 by Stuart Reid) Conditions inside the barracks were sometimes squalid and unsanitary. Often the soldiers washed inside, using the overnight urine tub for this purpose. Sometimes the barracks were located close to open sewers, which only served to make the problem worse. (From a War of 1812 website) Whenever possible, soldiers were still paid their daily subsistence money and left to their own devices as to how they fed themselves on home service. Most soldiers were content with this arrangement.Said one soldier: "We breakfasted about nine in the morning, on bread and milk; dined about two in the afternoon on potatoes and a couple of salt herrings, boiled in the pot with the potatoes; a small bottle of beer and a slice of bread for supper, when we were disposed to take that meal, which soldiers seldom do. On the whole, I am certain our expenses for messing, dear as markets were, did not exceed three shillings and sixpence a week". Neither the militia units or the regular army spent much time in any one place. Consequently, a considerable part of a battalion's existence was spent on the march, from one set of quarters to another. En route, the units would be accommodated each night, and on its twice weekly rest days, if no barracks were available, in civilian billets rather than in tented camps. When a unit was ordered onto the road, its route and nightly halting places were specified in a Marching Order, delivered to the Commanding Officer. He could then legally demand billets, beer and diet for himself and his men and their dependents, in any inn at those authorized halting places. The owner of the inn or premises was compensated for this public service by a deduction from the soldier's pay. To help get rid of these unwelcome guests, the law provided for the issuance of warrants for the local men to provide transportation-carriages or wagons, for one day to take the regiment or company into someone else's territory. (The British Redcoat, 1793-1815 by Stuart Reid)
"We were kept at constant drill as soon as we got our arms, which was in about a month after being embodied, and paraded at half past six o'clock every morning and six o'clock every evening the weather would permit. We were soon clothed in our clothing which consisted of a jacket without skirt, blue pantaloons with half gaiters, a very coarse waistcoat, and a leather cap with a worsted plume". "After being inspected by a field officer, we received orders to march for Stirling on the first day of September, 1798, in two divisions. The first division consisted of the Light Company, Captain Oliphant's, and was commanded by Major Stewart; the second division was the Grenadiers, Lt. Cols. Stewart and McDuff's companies, commanded by Captain C. Campbell". "The Regiment accordingly paraded in marching order on the North Inch (meadow) and every man received his marching guinea in his hand before we left the ground; this money is paid from the county and is due every militia man when he marches out of the county he belongs to. Our Second Division went by Crieff; the first marched by Auchterarder which is 14 miles distant from Perth. The next morning we marched pretty early and were joined by our first division at Greenloaning Toll where the two roads meet. Here we were met by the Lieutenant Colonel who took command of the regiment. When we had marched some miles further we were met by the 5th, or Stirlingshire Militia, and ours being younger (viz., the 9th), we were halted and forming on the roadside presented arms to them as they passed us with carried arms and their drums where we were met by the town volunteers under arms, who came out on purpose to salute us and welcome us into town where we halted for one hour only to refresh before marching into Stirling, which is only six miles further on." Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
Stirling is on the River Forth, and a town southwest of Perth. Stirling Castle was very strategic. It is at the landward end of the Firth of Forth and controls movement across the Lowlands and into the Highlands. It is said he who controls Stirling effectively controls Scotland. Therefore it is not surprising that the military unit for defending Scotland against invasion would be sent here.
"After leaving Dunblane, we proceeded on and soon had a view of Stirling Castle. We crossed the River Forth at Stirling Bridge, which is built of stone and has five arches and is commanded by the castle. Being arrived in town, we were billeted on the inhabitants, and the most part of us had no cause to rejoin at this change of quarters. A deal of us had our beds in wretched garrets, the roofs of which scarce kept out the rain. They were, however, soon changed upon a complaint being made to the commanding officer who ordered the captain of each company to inspect his men's quarters and report the same to him. The furnished rooms was let out very dear, a small one but badly furnished would be about 2/ or 1/9 per week yet many of us chose to pay this rather than stay in a bad and inconvenient billet". "Stirling is built on the declivity of a rock sloping to the east. The castle is built on the highest or most western part and commands the town. There are some heights on the north side betwixt the castle and the Bridge of Forth, where the Rebel Army, in 1746, attacked the castle and endeavored to raise a battery thereon but their cannon were repeatedly dismounted and their trenches demolished by the fire from the above mentioned batterys." "From the castle the prospect is truly spacious and pleasing; towards the north a range of lofty mountains raise their tops almost to the clouds and at the foot of them is, the Carse of Stirling through which the Forth rolls his tide. Towards the east the prospect extends so far as the mouth of the Forth and the Castle of Edinburgh may be seen on a clear day. To the south you have the villages of St. Ninians and Bannockburn where the famous and ever memorable battle was fought by King Robert Bruce against Edward of England in the glorious defense of the independence of our native country, the result is too well known by everybody for me to set it down here. At the back of the castle the rock is almost perpendicular and westward you have a fine view of the valley below. The Kings Park has a fine green about a half mile from the town and was the place the Regiment always went to for exercise. Our party was billeted in St. Ninians, Stirling being at the time crowded with soldiers as the Clan Alpin Fencibles was embodying there and with whom, our men were not on good terms, and quarrels were very frequent betwixt them until put a stop to by the vigilance of the officers of the two regiments." Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
In March, 1799, they moved to Ayr Barracks with small detachments being sent in June to Irvine and Saltcoats. These are all in Ayrshire and a very long trek to the southwest. "The 22nd March, we marched, our route being by the hill commonly called Take-Me-Down-Muir. We arrived at Killsyth and sent two of our companys to Kirkintulloch to be quartered, a small village four miles further on. Killsyth is a considerable town in the Shire of Stirling, has several streets in it well paved and the houses are built of stone and for the most part roofed with thatch. Next morning we marched pretty early and were joined at Kirkintulloch by the two companys I mentioned. We then proceeded and arrived in Glasgow where we were quartered for this and the next day, viz., Sunday, the 24th March, 1799. We had bad billets except those who payed us our which was at the rate of 1/ or 1/6 every billet quarters being scarce. We were on the 24th inspected by Major General Drummond who commanded the western district of Scotland and resides here always. Monday the 25th we marched to Kilmarnock which is 21 miles distant from Glasgow. There is a sort of half way stage house on this road which is called Kingswells. The house itself is very good but the people that at present inhabit it are very inhospitable and nobody ought to halt there that can walk or crawl to any other place. The whole of this road is bad and needs repair. Kilmarnock is a pretty large and populous place but there is not much trade carried on it on account of its situation; no river that is navigable being near it. The town itself is very irregularly built and the streets are narrow except at the Cross which is a large square where the public market stands. A great number of the houses especially in the outskirts are thatched and or one or two stories in height". Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
"Tuesday the 26th we marched from thence to Ayr, 12 miles distance; when within two miles from it we were met by the first division of the Sutherland Fencibles who had got the route from Ayr to the north to be disbanded; we halted, formed on the roadside and presented arms while they passed us with drums beating and colours flying. When we arrived at Ayr we were marched down to the barracks and the Sutherlands who remained in them was quartered in town until they marched. The barracks consisted of one large house to which there has been some additions made of late. It was formerly a sugar work which being purchased by the government was converted into a barracks. It stands within 140 paces of the sea, the spring tide coming up almost to the barrack wall, which enclosed the square which is spacious and level, laid with gravel. The barracks is in the middle, no less than six stories in height. The rooms contain 12 men each and have two windows and a fireplace with good furniture and utensils. They are always kept very clean and well aired. The stair cases is very good and likewise clean. There is four good kitchens for the soldiers to cook their messes in, with furnaces, pots, etc." "The town of Ayr is about a quarter mile further up from the sea. A small river called the Water of Air runs on the north side of the old town, over which there is two bridges. The old town is the principle one and has several streets well paved and lighted and one street called the main one runs from the new bridge to the south end of town, this is the most public part and the best inhabitants dwell in it and the most of the merchants have their shops here. The new town is very irregular built but the houses are low and covered for the most part in thatch, the streets are also mostly unpaved. There is a deal of ships goes from this port to Ireland, most of them with loads of coals which is brought in wagons from the coal pits which are here in great plenty down to the harbor; the country round is very fruitful and the markets abound with the different kind of commodities it produces. There is in the new town a public green to which the regiment always marched for field exercises." "We had got our regiment clothing some time since but it was only now it was permitted to be worn. It consisted of a short coat which buttoned across the breast on which there was no facings but white looping at each button and hole; the wrists and collar were faced with blue, the skirts with white cloth-blue pantaloons, white gaiters, white waistcoat, Austrian cap and worsted plume and a brass plate in front, the buttons and breast plate were engraved with the number and title of the regiment". "The regiment was reviewed here about the latter end of harvest by Major General Drummond who was pleased to express his approbation of the military appearance and conduct of the regiment. Before the review and in the time of harvest 18 men per company had leave of absence to cut down the crop. About the middle of November the regiment was presented with an elegant pair of colors by the Duchess of Atholl in the presence of the Duke and a respectable assemblage of ladies and gentlemen on the Green of Air; same day had a pound of beef and a bottle of porter allowed each man for dinner by His Grace our Colonel". Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
"About the beginning of the year 1800, one of the men wrote a letter to the Duke of York, Commander in Chief of the British forces, complaining of bad usage, wearing the clothing too long without it getting renewed, receiving bad beer from the barracks, etc., but did not sign his name to it. The letter came back to the Colonel enclosed in another desiring that the man who wrote it turn out good his complaint. This was read publicly to the regiment but no man would confess with it although everyone was asked by the Colonel if it was him who wrote it. About a month later, a letter came to the Colonel and he suspected it to be of the same handwriting with the one sent to the Commander in Chief. He accordingly sent for the man the letter belonged to who denied writing the one to the Duke but the Colonel ordered him into confinement upon which he immediately confessed it to be him that wrote the letter and begged pardon for the same. But no pardon was to be got. He was tried by court martial and received 500 lashes for the same". Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
"In April, 1800, the regiment moved to Greenock, with Captain Oliphant's and Captain MacDuff's companies being sent to Irvine and Captain Stewart's to Saltcoats. The companies left at Greenock were miserably uncomfortable. These men were billeted and had to pay three shillings a week for the poorest lodgings; provisions were scarce, extravagantly dear, and of inferior quality; and the regiment had to train in the streets as no open ground could be procured. Lt. Col. Graham Stirling was obliged to let the men go out to work as they were starving on account of the expenses to which they were put and under these circumstances it is not surprising to read that the regiment was 'losing ground daily in the matter of discipline'. The Duke exerted himself to produce a change of quarters and by the beginning of June, the whole regiment was housed in barracks to the great relief of the officers and men." Military History of Perthshire, Marchioness of Tullibardine, R.A. and J. Hay, Glasgow/Edinburgh, 1908
"About the end of March, the Light Company received orders for Greenock and soon after the regiment received the route to march, viz., three companys moved to Greenock, one to Saltcoats and two to Irvine. Accordingly on the 7th April, the first division marched; Captain Oliphants and McDuff's for Irvine, and Captain Stewart's company for Saltcoats. On the 8th April the second division marched through Irvine for Greenock with two field pieces 6 pounders which had been some time before attached to the regiment, while Captain Oliphant's and McDuff's companys lay in Irvine. Here too we got our new clothing the same as last year's only white breeches and long black gaiters instead of blue pantaloons. This year we got our half mounting but the last year's was paid to us in money at the rate of 10/9 each man and 14/ each sergeant." Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
"By the end of May, the regiment got orders to march for Glasgow Barracks, there to remain until further orders. The last division marched from Greenock on the 29th May, 1800 and arrived the same day in Glasgow and was billeted there till the last division of the First Battalion or Royal Regiment of Foot left the barracks where they took possession of them. When within a mile of Glasgow, the music band met us to play us into town, crossed the bridge over the Clyde at Broomielaw and marched up Argyle Street and Gallowgate at the east end of which are the barracks; they are built on a new plan and form a fine square. The soldiers' barracks consist of four flats, the lower one being built into kitchens for cooking, which are very commodious; every three rooms has one kitchen allotted them and tables and forms being placed in them for men to take dinner on which keeps the barrack rooms very clean. The rooms are well lighted with large windows and good utensils for the soldiers to use; there are two fine wells in the square just at the side of the soldiers' cleaning room on the east side of the square besides the one in the mess kitchen." Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
"The city of Glasgow is built on the north side of the River Clyde. It is the capital of the west of Scotland and is elegantly built on a regular plan, the streets are in general wide, paved and lighted on both sides and straight. There is also a number of fine squares, either filled in the middle with a fine green and pebble walks or a stately church with tall spires overlooking buildings; there is a university here and also a Royal infirmary; The prison is built exactly at the Cross and adjoining it is the Tontine Hotel and Coffee House, which is indeed very spacious and elegant. In front is the fine piazzas paved inside and outside so that it is commonly the rendezvous for all gentlemen, etc., who are constantly walking there. Just in front of the hotel is a statue of King William on horseback as large as life and well furnished. There is a great number of other public buildings and churches of different denominations and a Bridewell is built some years ago which is always full of bad women which are taken up on the streets during the night and with which the place is crowded at all times. The public duty of troops stationed here is pretty hard and the number we mounted on each guard was as follows: Main or City Guard-35; Barrack Guard-27; Bridewell Guard-4; Cells and Prisin-4; Priquett-28". Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
"During the latter end of harvest, the city was much disturbed with riots owing to the high price of provisions and very often our main guard had to be reinforced during the night. About the beginning of November, many members of the regiment came down with the Bloody Flux, and some taken to the regimental hospital, not a very agreeable situation being but badly fitted for the accommodation of patients and not well attended in other respects." Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
The Perthshire Militia remained in Glasgow until the end of July, 1801, when they set out for Fort George in two divisions marching via Aberdeen."The second division to which I belonged marched to Killsyth on the 21st July, 22nd to Stirling, 23rd halted there. The weather at this time was intensely warm, for which reason we marched very early in the morning to get the cool of the day, otherwise many would have fainted from fatigue. On the 24th we arrived at Auchterarder, on the 25th marched by Dunning to Perth and on Sunday the 26th, we halted there and had the pleasure of seeing our friends and acquaintances. On the 27th we marched to Coupar in Angus, this is a considerable country town lying partly in Perthshire and partly in Angushire. On the 28th we marched to Forfer which is a country town and royal borough, it is almost surrounded by a marsh or lough which produces merle and was formerly the residence of kings but now has hardly any remains of antiquity, the Cross excepted which now stands on a small eminence where it has been built by the magistrates and removed from the middle of the town where it formerly stood. On the 1st August we reached Laurence Kirk, a country village containing only one long street. Here we overtook the first division, who was just marching out as we went into it. On the 2nd August, we marched to Stonehaven, which is a small seaport town. It has a rocky small harbor and there is a deal of fishermen who reside here. One mile south is the ancient castle of Donnoter, standing on a rock hard on the sea and which we visited on the 3rd (Sunday) halted. The coast here is very rocky and wild. On the 4th August we marched to Aberdeen, the capital of the north of Scotland. On the 5th we reached Inverury, a small country town of one street. The division left thirty men and one sergeant at Kintore, five miles behind, to be quartered and join us the next morning. The rest of our march was as follows: Wednesday, 6th August, Huntly; Thursday 7th August, Fochabers; Friday, 8th August, Elgin; Saturday, 9th August, Forres; Sunday, 10th August, Halt; Monday, 11th August, Fort George". Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
Aberdeen Journal, August 5, 1801: "On Saturday, came to town, the 1st Division of the 9th or Royal, Perthshire Militia and on Monday marched for Fort George, the rest of the regiment marched yesterday and today for the same place." Fort George, from the website Historic Scotland, "is the finest example of 18th century engineering you will find anywhere in the British Isles. This vast garrison fortress was begun in the aftermath of the Battle of Culloden, 1746, which crushed the final Jacobite Rising. It took over 20 years to complete and in the event it was never attacked. It remains virtually unaltered today and still serves as an important military base." Today the barracks of Fort George are exactly as they were when George Patterson was there, along with the chapel and the powder magazine and cannons.
Boredom would have been a problem at Fort George. It was bleak, and an unpopular posting. The Moray Firth washes three sides of the fort and on the other the country does not produce nearly a blade of grass. "Furze bushes are sprinkled over the rough, stoney moor, for upwards of a mile, in the direction of the small town of Campbelltown (Ardersier); but even to that place, inconsiderable as it was, we were not permitted to go, as it was beyond the prescribed limits." The British Redcoat, 1793-1815 by Stuart Reid
"The regiment remained at Fort George until the 15th December, when we marched for Aberdeen, passing by Forres, Fochabers, Cullen, Banff, Turiff, Old Meldrum and arrived in Aberdeen on the 27th December, 1800, having halted three days in Banff and two in Old Meldrum. The artillery guns were sent round by Peterhead, the roads being too deep with snow in the interior to allow them to go along with the divisions of the regiment. The heavy baggage had been shipped at Fort George to go by sea to Perth, as it was well known that our stay in Aberdeen would be short as news of the preliminary treaty of peace had arrived in October. The regiment was quartered in billets until the 6th day of April, 1801, when we marched in three divisions for Perth in order to be disembodied. Arrived the 13th April." Diary of Thomas Murie, Sergeant, Royal Perthshire Militia
In March, 1802, the Treaty of Amiens was signed and the militia was ordered to Perth for disembodiment. On the 30th April, 1802, the regiment was disbanded, having marched on foot during all kinds of weather, over much of Scotland.
Caledonian Mercury, Edinburgh, May 1802
The Royal Perthshire Militia were disembodied on the North Inch (meadow) here yesterday. The Regiment behaved as they always have done, with greatest propriety. The men were waiting with carriages to draw their officers from their quarters to the regimental parade grounds which they did, shouting as they went along. They afterwards carried them on their shoulders back to the carriages and paraded the procession with them through the various streets of the town. Among 500 men there was not a discontented; all was harmony and joy; each man emulated another in testifying love, respect, and esteem for their officers. Porter having been ordered for the men from the Salutation Inn, the happy scene was closed by their drinking to the health of His Majesty.
"In June, 1802, the General Militia Act of 1802 was passed and Perthshire's quota was set at 653. In November, 1802 the Duke of Atholl was re-appointed colonel. The organization of the new regiment proceeded throughout the winter and as many men as possible as volunteers, the ballot only being enforced when other means failed. A great many men re-enrolled. They were now the 68th, instead of the 9th Royal Perthshire Militia. The Duke resigned at the end of March, and his nephew, William 3rd Earl of Mansfield, was appointed colonel". Military History of Perthshire, Marchioness of Tullbardine, R.A. and J. Hay, Glasgow/Edinburgh, 1908
George Patterson re-enlisted from the 9th into the 68th Militia. Along with his name on the roster are the names of two men named William, a David, James, John, Peter Paterson, as it was spelled; Military Historian, Mr. Roger Nixon thought it was likely these men were related to George Patterson.
"On the 7th April, 1803, the regiment embodied at Perth, and in June, 1803, they left Perth for West Barns Camp and in November moved to Haddington where they remained until 1805. While the regiment was at Haddington, detachments were sent to Linton 'as gunners' and to Dunbar Barracks 'as artificers', recruiting parties also being sent to Perth and Glasgow". (A Short History of Perthshire, Marchioness of Tullibardine, R.J. and J. Hay, Glasgow/Edinburgh, 1908.)In June of 1803 the fear of invasion was "huge and large concentrations of troops were massed along the coast. West Barns Camp near Dunbar was alive with troops, the Fife, Perthshire, Lanarkshire, and Galway militias along with dragoons were all camped there under the command of Major General Sir George Don. From a website on the Fifeshire Militia.
Excerpt from "The Lamp of Lothian, or the History of Haddington" by James Miller, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 1844: "After the rupture of 1803, when Napoleon and his bridge of boats formed the theme of the morning's debate and the terror of the midnight dream, the greatest military force ever assembled on these shores in latter times, was encamped on West Barns Links, under the vigilant command of Major General Sir George Don. The regiments consisted of the Lanarkshire, Perthshire, and Fife militias, the Galloway Militia as gunners and a few dragoons to do duty for the general. The corps drilled twice in the week, in the East Mill Haugh, on Wednesdays and Saturdays and, from the robust condition of the men, had a stout, soldier-like appearance. The town council empowered the magistrates to reserve in the articles of the East Mill Haugh, liberty for volunteers to exercise and drill in that pleasant meadow by the Tyne. Government having come to the most determined resolution in prosecuting the war, it was necessary that more substantial cantonments should be found for the soldiery than the tented field; accordingly, in the autumn of 1803, barracks were erected at Haddington, and Dunbar, with surprising celerity, and at a vast expense. They were begun in some instances ere the crop was off their site and occupied by the 1st November. The huts were built of wood, pitched over, and covered with red tiles, and each accommodated 24 men; the Haddington Barracks were constructed to contain about 1,800 men and 500 horses; viz., 326 cavalry, 301 artillery and 1,158 infantry. Among the first regiments that occupied the barracks were the Perthshire, the 18th or Royal Irish Militia and the Galloway Militia".
"In May, 1805, they left Haddington and on the 19th June, embarked at Port Seton for Ramsgate, where they arrived on the 1st July. During the next five years, they were quartered at Ramsgate, Ashford, Canterbury, Dover, and other places in Kent, detachments at different times being stationed in Deal and Eastware Bay. Military History of Perthshire, Marchioness of Tullibardine, R.A. & J. Hay, Glasgow/Edinburch, 1908. The Aberdeen Journal, June 8, 1805, reported that the Ross-Shire, Perthshire, and Renfrewshire regiments of militia march on Monday for England.
George Patterson's militia unit was sent to the area of Kent and Sussex from May, 1805, and kept there until he joined the 37th Foot in 1809. This time frame constituted a period when England was once again worried about invasion by the French, with 160,000 French soldiers stationed at Boulogne, although by the time George arrived, Nelson had defeated the French at Trafalgar and the worst fears had passed. However, if the invasion were to come to England, the British felt it would be in the area of Kent and Sussex. "The Scottish Militia Act of 1797 called for the Scottish Militia only in wartime (specifically one month after hostilities ended) and to serve only within Scotland. After the Peace of Amiens in the spring of 1802, the militia was disbanded under the terms of the Act. Throughout the summer it was clear that peace was likely to be short lived and the British government passed new Acts in 1802. Under the new Act, the Scottish militia was increased from 10 to 15 regiments and they were liable to serve anywhere in Scotland, England and Wales (they could volunteer to serve in Ireland). Although the Act was passed in 1802, the government did not actually embody the Militia until March, 1803. It was thought that the men would be less likely to desert if they were far from home and so most Scottish regiments served in England and vice versa. The main concentrations were in the southeast where a French invasion was thought most likely. One of the militia's main tasks was guarding prisoners of war and before 1811 they were also held mostly in England."
George was at Dover, Deal, Ramsgate, Ashford, Canterbury and Eastware Bay. Dover was one of the Cinque Ports, and Deal and Ramsgate were towns included in the Cinque Ports Confederation, the first line of defense against invasion. They were fortified with castles at Dover and Deal. The militia and the volunteers were expected to garrison the forts in this area and also the redoubts and batteries. They acted as signalers on the semaphore. They also aided and assisted the Revenue officers in fighting smugglers. Smuggling was rife along the coastline of Kent and Sussex. George Patterson was also stationed at Lewes, the county town of Sussex, in barracks that were built in 1795.
In July, 1806, the Derby Mercury reported "At Ramsgate, the embarkation of troops is going on with great activity. The 5th Division of the Guards was embarked yesterday. The Royal Perthshire Militia was marched from Ramsgate to Deal, where it will remain until the embarkation has been completed." In September, 1806, the London Morning Chronicle reported, "At Ramsgate, everything is again bustle. The Perthshire Militia have removed to tents on the top of the cliff to make room in the barracks. "Because of its proximity to Europe, Ramsgate was the chief embarkation point for soldiers leaving to fight Napoleon."
After 1804, "the militia became a recruiting ground for the army. Every man enlisting into the Line received a bounty. On the 14th August, 1807, an act was passed by which two fifths of any militia regiment might be enlisting, the vacancies to be filled up by a fresh ballot so as to bring the militia total to the number specified by the Act of 1802." Military History of Perthshire, Marchioness of Tullibardine, R.A. & J. Hay, Glasgow/Edinburgh, 1908. During 1809, 211 men volunteered from the militia into the Line. One of these men was George Patterson.
MILITARY HISTORY OF GEORGE PATTERSON IN THE 37th REGIMENT (North Hampshire) OF FOOT 1809 - 1816
Within the window of time between May of 1805, when George Patterson left Scotland for Ramsgate, and March of 1809, he met Ann Marigold (also spelled Merrigold and Marygold) of Worcester, Worcerstershire. Ann was baptized December 12, 1790 at St. Andrew, Worcester, Worcestershire as Ann, the daughter of John and Ann Marygold. George Patterson and Ann Marygold were married on March 13, 1809 at St. Botolph's Church, Without Aldersgate, in London. "Without Aldersgate" means it was without the city wall but within the city limits of the time. This would have been a month before George Patterson signed up with the 37th Regiment in April, 1809.
George Patterson volunteered for service in the 37th Regiment of Foot (North Hampshire) from the Perth Militia on April 19, 1809; this would have been the standard militia engagement as opposed to the unlimited engagement of the regular army. Unfortunately this coincided with the majority of the 37th Regiment being in the Leeward Islands and with no Depot musters being present, no enlistments are shown in the musters for that period. There is no mention of George until the September-December 1809 muster when the Service Companies arrived at Plymouth and reformed with the Depot. It would seem the Depot of the 37th Foot had been at Shrewsbury and moved to Burton-Upon-Trent between September 25-30, 1809 with the Service Companies joining at that place at late October from Plymouth. The regiment seems to have been based at both Burton-Upon-Trent and nearby Derby.
On April 24, 1810 the regiment begins to move to Horsham which takes until May 7 to complete. George and Ann Patterson had a son named Walter Patterson, their first born, who was christened at Horsham, Sussex, England on June 10, 1810. The record at St Mary's Church states Walter is the son of George Patterson, a private with the 37th Foot, and Ann.
On June 11, 1810 the 37th Foot spent two days marching to (East) Blatchington in Sussex where they arrived on June 13, 1810. By the end of September 1810 the headquarters of the 37th Regiment of Foot was shown to be at the nearby Lewes Barracks. The regiment left Lewes on November 23 and marched for three days to Portsmouth where they embarked on ships November 28 for passage to Ireland. The winds were apparently not favourable, and the ships to Ireland did not arrive at Middleton near Cork until New Years Day 1811. The 37th Regiment went into barracks in that city.
There is no information about the year George Patterson spent stationed in Cork. There were a number of places around Cork where he could have been billeted. He could have been stationed at Ballincollig, six miles west of Cork, which was the main artery depot for the country. More likely, however, he was stationed at Fermoy, which was becoming the main military depot, located northeast of Cork. It had a military hospital and could accommodate almost 3,000 men at the time George was there. Website British Military Barracks of County Cork
After only a year the regiment embarked to complete the return journey; drafts of the 37th Regiment arrived at Portsmouth January 10, 1811 (George in the latter ship) in order that they could be added to a convoy to the Mediterranean. Due to the fact that the baggage of the 37th Foot had not arrived the battalion was sent for a period to Hastings (March 2, 1812-March 7, 1812) and despite being only 600 men strong (normally an infantry battalion was close to 1,000 men) they sailed to Gibraltar. The regiment arrived at Gibraltar December 23, 1812 where they had been assigned for garrison duty for two years. George is shown as being sick in hospital in Gibraltar in September, 1812, in December, 1812 and again in December, 1813. Sickness seems to have been quite an issue with the regiment at that time as a wing of the 37th was based at Ceuta on the other side of the strait where they lost more than 70 men to Yellow Fever.The average mortality with Yellow Fever was one death in every five who contracted the disease.
We are not exactly sure where Ann Marigold was during the early years of her marriage. However, while in Gibraltar, a daughter was born. She died and was buried in Gibraltar. Soldiers were allowed to marry but the British army allowed only six women per company to be officially "on the strength" and they could accompany their husbands on active service, receiving rations and places on troop transports. At the conclusion of the Peninsular War, only these wives officially "on the strength" were allowed to return to England with their husbands and this resulted in a large number of women and children being abandoned in France with no provisions or means of returning to their homes. The wives were expected to submit to army rules as well as to contribute by washing, cooking and other duties. From a War of 1812 website.
On February 10, 1814 the 37th Regiment embarked at Gibraltar for service in the Peninsular Campaign, under Wellington, landing in France at the Bayonne Passage on March 15, 1814 where they would take part in the investment of that city. The Battle of Bayonne saw the French garrison of Bayonne led by General of Division Pierre Thouvenot launching a sortie against the besieging force of British, Portuguese and Spanish troops led by Lt. General John Hope. The Allies instituted the Siege of Bayonne by mounting a complex land-sea operation that bridged the Adour Estuary downstream from Bayonne so crossing the Adour allowed Hope's troops to also close off the north side of Bayonne, completely investing the city. Once Bayonne was surrounded, the siege was pursued lethargically on both sides. The fighting on April 4, 1814 involved heavy hand-to-hand combat. The siege continued and on April 17th, the French field army under Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult signed an armistice with Arthur Wellelsley, 1st Duke of Wellington. Thouvenot continued to resist until direct orders from Soult compelled him to observe the ceasefire. The fighting marked the last major battle of the Peninsular War and occurred after unofficial news of Napoleon's April 4, 1814 abdication. Thouvenot's reasons for instituting the sortie are not clear because there was apparently nothing for the French to gain by fighting. After the French enjoyed initial success, Allied forces drove them back into Bayonne with heavy losses on both sides.
In 1814, during the Peninsular Campaign under Wellington, George Patterson was wounded; he returned to Gibraltar to recover. His wife Ann was in Gibraltar to nurse him to health, having left their son Walter with her parents in England. The couple stayed with the army and George repaired shoes for the troops.
On June 4, 1814 the 37th Regiment of Foot embarked on ships at Pauillac on the River Gironde (near Bordeaux) to sail for America. They had been sent to assist in the War of 1812, but arrived too late to participate. The two vessels, the Juliana and the Horniant, arrived at Quebec on August 4 and August 7, 1814. The 37th Foot was assigned to the command of General Izard and had moved to Burlington in Upper Canada after elements of it has been involved in the invasion of the U.S. at Lake Champlain and the Battle of Plattsburgh on September 11, 1814. By October of 1814, the 37th Regiment of Foot had moved to Montreal and remained in that area of Canada for the next two years, being listed at Amherstberg by June of 1816.
George Patterson and Ann Marigold had a son Charles who was born during this time, in 1814 in Quebec.
From Irving's Officers of the British Army in Canada, 1812-1816, pages 23-24: "The regiment was stationed at Montreal, Kingston and Quebec, with detachments at Amherstburg and other stations. This regiment, also called the Hampshire Regiment, wore colours that bore the words,'Minden','Torunay', and 'Peninsula.'"
A STORY OF WATERLOO
From the Perth Courier, October 23, 1896. As told by James Patterson about his father.
Note: George Patterson was wounded at the battle of Bayonne, but was already in North America to assist with defending British lands from American advances in 1815 when the Battle of Waterloo occurred.
George Patterson was a native of the old city of Perth, Scotland, and a soldier in the 37th regiment of British Foot. He was with his regiment at the battle of Waterloo, and was witness to a somewhat remarkable incident in that day's memorable events. In another regiment stationed near his was a private named Samuel Muirhead, also a Scotchman, who, just as the two armies were about to join in deadly combat, asked his superior officer for leave to fall out of the ranks for a minute or two. This was granted, and Muirhead advancing to the front of his company, took off his shako, knelt down, and uttered aloud a prayer. He then resumed his place in the ranks, and was ready for the fray. The Frenchmen were chuckled out, without doubt, and it may be that Samuel gave his prayer some credit for the result, as he was an evident believer in the efficacy of prayer. Both soldiers escaped the bloody fate of many thousands of their comrades that day, and the praying Muirhead was promoted to a sergeancy after the battle, so his brother soldier Patterson tells.
George Patterson reached his seven year point on April 19, 1816 at which time he was granted additional pay. It was also the end point of his original engagement and as he did not want to re-engage, he was discharged June 24, 1816 as "time expired". He did not qualify for any campaign medals and his service was too short for a long time service medal. George Patterson received his land grant July 16, 1816: George Patterson, private, 37th Regiment, 1 adult male and 1 adult female, 2 males under 12, years of service 7-66, country Perth, N.B. (North Britain), located July 16, 1816, Bathurst, C5 NE14, grant due to General Instructions, Settling Duties Performed. His wife and two children were with him. Out of approximately 985 land grants made to soldiers who had been mustered out at Perth, between 1816 and 1820, only roughly 295 had their wives and children with them. From Military Historian Me. Roger Nixon, who did the initial research at Kew into George Patterson's military service, "This man probably had an option to return home. He did not go into pension. Lack of pension records has restricted finding more information about this man. A soldier was usually pensioned either from being disabled in some way (as a result of army life) or having served 21 years. He was in neither category. However, if you add his military service of eleven years in the militia and his seven years of army service-18 years, then, I would think this weighed heavily in his favor when obtaining the land grant as they did not dish these out willy nilly".
Ann Marigold (Merigold, Marygold, Merrygold) was born in Worcester, Worcestershire, England in 1790, where she was baptized December 12, 1790 at St. Andrew, Worcester, Worcestershire, England. Ann died May 3, 1867 at Balderson's Corners at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Andrew Allan, the former Janet Patterson.
Matilda Marigold Patterson Bowland was given the cameo by her grandmother, Ann Marigold Patterson. At the age of 89, Matilda passed the precious heirloom to another descendant and enclosed a letter detailing some of the family history. The letter dated October 17, 1951 explains:
The cameo belonged to my paternal grandmother, Ann Marigold who married my grandfather George Patterson in London, England. George was a lieutenant in the army and fought against Napoleon being wounded in Spain. His wife went to him, leaving her young son Walter with her own mother and father. She remained with her husband, whose wound was not serious, till the end of the war, giving birth to a daughter while there. This child died on the way home and is buried at Gibraltar. After the Battle of Waterloo, the soldiers were given a grant of land in Canada if they cared to emigrate. Large numbers came to Canada and settled in and around Perth. My grandparents came there in 1820 leaving Walter in England. He did not come out to join the family until he was a young man. I do not know if any others were born in England but altogether there were 14 children. Grandmother must have brought the brooch with her from home as the stores in Perth were very primitive in those days. So I hope you will enjoy having it for it is beautifully made.
The cameo has been passed down through generations and is treasured today by descendants.
On the 1819 census of Bathurst Township, Ann and George are shown with three children: Janet, Charles and John. On the 1821 Assessment List of Bathurst Township George is still shown as being on Lot 14, Concession 5. By 1842, he had moved to Perth. He is shown as a shoemaker. One member of the family is temporarily absent. One member is a native of England, one of Scotland, and 5 natives of Canada. They had lived in the province 27 years. There were 2 females 14-18; 1 male, single, 21-30; 1 male 30-60 married; 2 females 14-45, single; and 1 female over 45 married. Seven members of the Church of England.
Perth Courier, July 25, 1862, Page 3
Died, on the 20th instant, George Patterson, Sr., in the 81st year of his age. The deceased was a native of Perth, in Scotland, and came to Canada in 1814 with his Regiment, the 37th Regiment of Foot, and took his part in the struggle then going on with the neighbouring States. He was discharged in 1816,when he came to Perth and settled here, where he continued to reside until the day of his decease. Before coming to Canada he served with his Regiment through the Peninsula War. He was universally respected and esteemed by all who knew him. Was for many years a member of the Episcopal church and died in the full and firm hope of a blessed immortality.
Perth Courier, May 17, 1867, Page 2
Died--At the residence of her son-in-law, Mr. Andrew Allan, Balderson's Corners, on Friday, May 3rd, Ann, widow of the late Mr. George Patterson, aged 76 years. The deceased was a native of Worcestershire, England, and with her husband came to Canada and settled in Perth in 1816, when what is now the site of the town was covered with trees. She leaves six sons, two of whom reside in Perth, and two daughters to mourn her loss.
It is not exactly known where George and Ann Marigold Patterson are buried. The old Perth Burying Grounds (Craig Street Cemetery) opened in 1820 and many old pioneers were buried there. A George Paterson is interred in plot 93 in the Anglican section of the cemetery. However, when the Elmwood Cemetery opened, some graves from the Craig Street Cemetery were moved to Elmwood Cemetery.
George Patterson and Ann Marigold brought their family to Canada in the early 1800's. The children of this pioneer family, and their descendants are featured on individual pages as follows:Walter Patterson
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